South Carolina Oyster Restoration and Enhancement
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources

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Many of these resources are available online or at the Fort Johnson Marine Center library . 

The SC DNR also maintains digital copies of all publications from the Fort Johnson Marine Center.

We have not attempted to give you links to all articles since URLs change over time.  You might want to search for them on

Anderson, W.D. 1997. Utilization of oyster shell to suppress estuarine shoreline erosion. SCDHEC, Final report Contract #EQ-&-534, 10pp. Available online at

Andrews R.S., R.W. Alden III, M.W. Luckenbach, and J.A. Wesson. 1997. The use of coal combustion substrate for oyster reef development. Pp 363-375 in Sakkestad, B.A., ed., Proceedings of the 22nd International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems. Coal and Slurry Technology Association of America, Washington, DC.

Anonymous. 1996. Artificial habitat for oyster settlement. Water Farming Journal 11( 8):2.

Ardito, T. and D. Finch. 1998 (on-line). Restoring Coastal Habitats. NOAA, State of the Coast Report. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA.

Arnold, WS. 2001. Bivalve enhancement and restoration strategies in Florida, U.S.A. Hydrobiologia 465 (1-3): 7-19.

Bahr, L.M. and W.P. Lanier. 1981. The ecology of intertidal oyster reefs of the South Atlantic coast: A community profile. US Fish Wildlife Service Program FWS/OBS/-81/15, 105 pp.

Baker, P.K. 1997. Settlement site selection by oyster larvae, Crassostrea virginica: evidence for geotaxis. Journal of Shellfish Research. 16:125-128.

Baker, S. & R. Mann. 1992. Effects of hypoxia and anoxia on larval settlement, juvenile growth, and juvenile survival of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Biological Bulletin. 182: 265-269.

Bartol, I. & R. Mann. 1997. Small - scale settlement patterns of the oyster Crassostrea virginica on a constructed intertidal reef. Bull. Mar. Sci. 61: 881-897.

Bartol, I.K., R. Mann, & M. Luckenbach. 1999. Growth and mortality of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on constructed intertidal reefs: effects of tidal height and substrate level. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 237:157-187.

Bartol, I.K. & R. Mann. 1999. Small-scale patterns of recruitment on a constructed intertidal reef: the role of spatial refugia. p. 159-170. In: (eds.) M. Luckenbach, R. Mann, and J. Wesson. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062.

Beck, MW; Heck, KL; Able, KW; Childers, DL . 2003. The role of nearshore ecosystems as fish and shellfish nurseries. Issues in Ecology. Vol. 11, pp. 1-12.

Beck, M. W., K. L. Heck, Jr., K. W. Able, D. L. Childers, D. B. Eggleston, B. M. Gillanders, B. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T. J. Minello, R. J. Orth, P. F. Sheridan, and M. P. Weinstein. 2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience 5 (8):633- 641.

Breitburg, D.C. 1999. Are three-dimensional structure and healthy oyster populations the keys to an ecologically interesting and important fish community? Pp 239-250 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA, 358pp.

Breitburg, D., L.D. Coen, M.W. Luckenbach, R. Mann, M. Posey, and J.A. Wesson. 2000. Oyster reef restoration: Convergence of harvest and conservation strategies. Journal of Shellfish Research 19:371-377.

Brooks, W.K. 1891. The oyster, reissued, 1996 edition with a foreword by Paynter, K.T., Jr. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 230 pp.

Brumbaugh, R.D., M.W. Beck, L. D. Coen, L.Craig and P. Hicks. 2006. A Practitioners' Guide to the Design and Monitoring of Shellfish Restoration Projects: An Ecosystem Services Approach. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 32 pp.

Brumbaugh, R.D., L.A. Sorabella, C. Johnson, and W.J. Goldsborough. 2000a. Small scale aquaculture as a tool for oyster restoration in Chesapeake Bay. Marine Technology Society Journal 34:79-86.

Brumbaugh, R.D., L.A. Sorabella, C.O. Garcia, W.J. Goldsborough, and J.A. Wesson. 2000b. Making a case for community-based oyster restoration: An example from Hampton Roads, Virginia, U.S.A. Journal of Shellfish Research 19:467-472.

Burrell, V.G., Jr. 1986. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - American oyster. US Fish Wildlife Service Biological Report 82(11.57), US Army Corps of Engineers TR EL-82-4, 17pp.

Burrell, V.G., Jr., J.J. Manzi, C.B. O'Rourke. 1991. Assessment of mechanical transplanting as a means of rehabilitating intertidal oyster beds. Proc. Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 40:228-240.

Burrows, F., J.M. Harding, R. Mann, R. Dame, and L. Coen. 2005. Restoration monitoring of oyster reefs. Pp. 175-249 in Thayer, G.W., D.H. Merkey, T.A. McTigue, F.M. Burrows, R.J. Salz, and P.F. Gayaldo, eds. Science-based Restoration Monitoring of Coastal Habitats Volume Two: Tools for Monitoring Coastal Habitats. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, Decision Analysis Series No 23. NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, MD, 628 pp. plus appendices.

Bushek, D., D. Richardson, M.Y. Bobo, and L. D. Coen. 2004. Quarantine of Oyster Shell Cultch Reduces the Abundance of Perkinsus Marinus J. Shell. Res.23(2): 369-373.

Cairns, John, Jr . 2000. Setting ecological restoration goals for technical feasibility and scientific validity. Ecological Engineering 15 171�180.

Chew, KK . 2000. Louisiana Coastal Restoration and Its Impact on Future Oystering. Aquaculture Magazine 26 (2): 93-99.

Chose, J.R. 1999. Factors influencing bank erosion in tidal salt marshes of Murrells Inlet and North Inlet, South Carolina. M.S. Thesis, University of Charleston and MUSC, 98 pp.

Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2000. Restoring Chesapeake Gold, 17pp.

Coen, L.D. and M.W. Luckenbach. 2000. Developing success criteria and goals for evaluating oyster reef restoration: Ecological function or resource exploitation? Ecological Engineering 15:323-343.

Coen, L.D., D.M. Knott, E.L. Wenner, N.H. Hadley, and A.H. Ringwood. 1999a. Intertidal oyster reef studies in South Carolina: Design, sampling and experimental focus for evaluating habitat value and function. Pp. 131-156, in M.W. Luckenbach, R. Mann, J.A. Wesson (eds.), Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Point, VA.

Coen, L.D., M.W. Luckenbach, and D.L. Breitburg. 1999b. The role of oyster reefs as essential fish habitat: A review of current knowledge and some new perspectives. Pp. 438-454, in L.R. Benaka (ed.), Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 22, Bethesda, MD.

Dame, R.F. 1996. Ecology of Bivalves: An Ecosystem Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 254 pp.

Dame, R.F. and S. Libes. 1993. Oyster reefs and nutrient retention in tidal creeks. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol 171:251-258.

Dame, R.F., R.G. Zingmark, and E. Haskin. 1984. Oyster reefs as processors of estuarine materials. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 83:239-247.

Dame, R.F., J.D. Spurrier, and R.G. Zingmark. 1992. In situ metabolism of an oyster reef. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 164:147-159.

Eckmayer, W.J. 1980. Restoration of Oyster Resources Lost in a Natural Disaster. NTIS, Springfield, VA, 1980, 9 pp.

Eggleston, D. 1990. Foraging behavior of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, on juvenile oysters, Crassostrea virginica: effects of prey density and size. Bull. Mar. Sci. 46:62-82.

Eisele, W; Zimmer, BJ; Connell, R . 2001. Pressures on New Jersey shellfish waters. Journal of Shellfish Research 20 (3): 1301-1304.

French McCay, D.P. C. H. Peterson, J. T. DeAlteris, J. Catena. 2003. Restoration that targets function as opposed to structure: replacing lost bivalve production and filtration. Mar Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 264: 197�212.

Galtsoff, P. S. 1964. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fisheries Bulletin 64:1-480.

Giotta, R.E. 1999. Distribution of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in South Carolina: Interacting effects of predation, sedimentation and water flow at varying tidal elevations. MS Thesis, University of Charleston, 97pp.

Grizzle, R.E., J. K. Greene, M. W. Luckenbach, and L. D. Coen. . In review. A New In Situ Method For Measuring Seston Uptake by Suspension-Feeding Bivalve Molluscs. Submitted to J. Shellf. Res.

Hackney, C.T. 2000. Restoration of coastal habitats: expectation and reality. Ecological Engineering 15:165�170.

Hadley, N. H. and L.D. Coen. 2002. Community-Based Program Engages Citizens in Oyster Reef Restoration (South Carolina). Ecological Restoration 20(4):297-298.

Harding, J. M. 1999. Selective feeding behavior of larval naked gobies (Gobiosoma bosc) and blennies (Chasmodes bosquianus and Hypsoblennius hentzi): preferences for bivalve veligers. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 179: 145 -153.

Harding, J.M. 2001. Temporal Variation and Patchiness of Zooplankton Around a Restored Oyster Reef. Estuaries 24(3):453-466.

Harding, JM; Mann, R . 2001. Oyster reefs as fish habitat: Opportunistic use of restored reefs by transient fishes. J. Shellfish Res. 20 (3): 951-959.

Harding, J.M. and R. Mann. 1999. Fish species richness in relation to restored oyster reefs, Piankatank River, Virginia. Bulletin of Marine Science 65(1):289-300.

Hargis, W.J. and D.S. Haven. 1988. Imperilled oyster industry of Virginia: A critical analysis with recommendations for restoration. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester, VA. VIMS-SRAMSOE-290, 145 pp.

Hargis, W.J., Jr. and D.S. Haven. 1999. Chesapeake oyster reefs, their importance, destruction and guidelines for restoring them. Pp 329-358 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA., 358pp.

Hawkins, S.J., J.R. Allen, and S. Bray. 1999. Restoration of temperate marine and coastal ecosystems: Nudging nature. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9(1):23-46.

Haywood, E.L. III, T.M. Soniat, and R.C. Broadhurst III. 1999. Alternative to clam and oyster shell as cultch for eastern oysters. Pp 295-304 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA., 358pp.

Jordan, SJ; Greenhawk, KN; McCollough, CB; Vanisko, J; Homer, ML. 2002. Oyster biomass, abundance, and harvest in northern Chesapeake Bay: trends and forecasts. J. Shellfish Res. 21 (2): 733-741.

Kennedy, V.S., R.I.E. Newell, and A.F. Eble, eds. 1996. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, MD., 734 pp.

Kirby, MX; Miller, HM . 2005. Response of a benthic suspension feeder (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 62(4): 679-689.

Leffler,M. and P. Hayes, eds. 2004. Oyster Research and Restoration in U.S. Coastal Waters: Research Priorities and Strategies. Virginia Sea Grant. And Maryland Sea Grant. 11 pp. Available online at

Leffler, M. 1995. Multispecies management in the Chesapeake Bay -- A far future? Maryland Mar. Notes 13(4/5):1-10.

Lehnert, RL; Allen, DM . 2002. Nekton Use of Subtidal Oyster Shell Habitat in a Southeastern U.S. Estuary. Estuaries 25(5): 1015-1024.

Lenihan, H.S. 1996. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: Hydrodynamics, sedimentation, and the production of oysters. PhD. Dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 171 pp.

Lenihan, H.S. and J.H. Grabowski. 1998. Recruitment to and utilization of oyster reef habitat by fishes, shrimps and blue crabs: An experiment with economic analyses. Fisheries Resource Grant Report, June 1998, North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries, Morehead City, NC.

Lenihan, H.S. and C.H. Peterson. 1998. How habitat degradation through fishery disturbance enhances impacts of hypoxia on oyster reefs. Ecol. Applic. 8:128-140.

Lenihan, H.S. and F. Micheli. 2000. Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: Resolving a fishery conflict using ecological experimentation. Fish. Bull. 98:86-95.

Lenihan, H.S., C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Allen. 1996. Does flow speed also have a direct effect on growth of active suspension feeders: An experimental test on oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Limnol. Oceanog. 41:1359-1366.

Loosanoff, V.L. 1965. The American or eastern oyster. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Circ. 205:36.

Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries . 2004. Louisiana�s Oyster Shell Recovery Pilot Project. Final Report NOAA Award No. NA96FK0188. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Socioeconomics Research and Development Section and Marine Fisheries Division. 233pp + appendices.

Luckenbach, M.W.; Coen, L.D.; Ross, P.G. Jr. and Stephen, J.A. 2005. Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: Relationships Between Oyster Abundance and Community Development based on Two Studies in Virginia and South Carolina. J. Coastal Res. 40: 64-78.

Luckenbach, M., J. Nestlerode, T. Hurlock, and G. Coates. 1997. Characterization of resident and transient assemblages associated with constructed oyster reef habitats: Beginning to relate structure and function. Final Report, Year 1, Aquatic Reef Habitat Program, Chesapeake Bay Program, 56pp.

Luckenbach, M.W., R. Mann, and J.A. Wesson (eds.) 1999. Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration. A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Point, VA, 358 pp.

MacKenzie, C.L., Jr. 1963. To increase oyster production in the northeastern United States. Mar. Fish. Rev. 45:1-22.

MacKenzie, C.L., Jr. 1966a. History of oystering in the United States and Canada, featuring the 8 greatest oyster estuaries. Mar. Fish. Rev. 58:1-87.

MacKenzie, C.L., Jr. 1966b. Management of natural populations. Pp 707-721 in Kennedy, V.S., Newell, R.I.E., and Eble, A.F., eds., The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, MD.

MacKenzie, C.L., Jr., V.G. Burrell, Jr., A. Rosenfield, and W.L. Hobart, eds. 1997. The History, Present Condition, and Future of Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe. Vol. I. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. US Dept. Commerce, NOAA Techn. Rept. NMFS 127, Seattle, WA, 234 pp.

Mallin, M.A., L.B. Cahoon, R.P. Lowe, J.F. Merritt, R.K. Sizemore, and K.E. Williams. 2000. Restoration of shellfishing waters in a tidal creek following limited dredging. Journal of Coastal Research 16(1):40-47.

Mann, R. 2000. Restoring the oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay: A commentary. Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):335-339.

Mann, R. 2001. Restoration of the oyster resource in Chesapeake Bay: The role of oyster reefs in population enhancement, water quality improvement and support of diverse species-rich communities. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 101-1:38-42.

Mann, R; Evans, DA. 2004. Site selection for oyster habitat rehabilitation in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay: A commentary. J. Shellfish Res. 23 (1) :41-49.

Mann, R. & J.M. Harding. 1997. Trophic studies on constructed "restored" oyster reefs. Annual report to the U.S. E.P.A. Chesapeake Bay Program, Living Resources Committee. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062. 30 p. Available online here

Mann, R. & J.M. Harding. 1998. Continuing trophic studies on constructed "restored" oyster reefs. Annual report to the U.S. E.P.A. Chesapeake Bay Program, Living Resources Committee. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062. 71 p. Available online here

Mann, R., F. Perkins, J. Wesson, & I. Bartol. 1996. Intertidal oyster reefs as a tool for estuarine rehabilitation and rejuvenation of the Virginia oyster fishery . Final report to the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Coastal Resource Management Program, Richmond, Virginia, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia.

McCormick-Ray, J. 2001. Estuarine biodiversity is multi-ordered: The oyster example. Proceedings of Conservation of Biological Diversity: A Key to the Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem and Beyond. pp. 214-224.

Meyer, D.L. and E.C. Townsend. 2000. Faunal utilization of created intertidal eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reefs in the southeastern Unites States. Estuaries 23:34-45.

Meyer, D.L., E.C. Townsend, and P. L. Murphy, 1996. Final report for the project "The Evaluation of restored wetlands and enhancement methods for existing restorations". NMFS, SEFSC, Beaufort Lab, NC., 115 pp + append.

Meyer, D.L., E.C. Townsend, and G.W. Thayer, 1997. Stabilization and erosion control value of oyster cultch for intertidal marsh. Restoration Ecology 5:93-99.

Micheli, F. and C.H. Peterson. 1999. Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements. Conservation Biology 13(4):869-881.

Milbury, CA; Meritt, DW; Newell, RI; Gaffney, PM. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA markers allow monitoring of oyster stock enhancement in the Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Biol. 145 (2): 351-359.

Nelson, KA; Leonard, LA; Posey, MH; Alphin, TD; Mallin, MA. 2004. Using transplanted oyster (Crassostrea virginica) beds to improve water quality in small tidal creeks: a pilot study. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 298 (2): 347-368.

Newell, R.I.E. 1988. Ecological changes in the Chesapeake Bay: Are they the result of overharvesting the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Pp 536-546 in Lynch, M.P. and E.C. Krone, eds., Understanding the Estuary: Advances in Chesapeake Bay Research. Chesapeake Research Consortium, Publ. 129 CBP/TRS 24/88, Gloucester Pt., VA.

O'Beirn, F.X., M.W. Luckenbach, J.A. Nestlerode, and G.M. Coates. 2000. Toward design criteria in constructed oyster reefs: Oyster recruitment as a function of substrate type and tidal height. Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):387-395.

Peterson, C.H.,, J. H. Grabowski, and S. P. Powers. 2003. Estimated enhancement of fish production resulting from restoring oyster reef habitat: quantitative valuation. Mar.Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 264: 249�264.

Peterson, C.H., H.C. Summerson, and R.A. Luettich, Jr. 1996. Response of bay scallops to spawner transplants: A test of recruitment limitation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series. 132(1-3):93-107.

Piazza, Bryan P; Banks, Patrick D; La Peyre, Megan K . 2005. The Potential for Created Oyster Shell Reefs as a Sustainable Shoreline Protection Strategy in Louisiana. Restoration Ecology. 13, (3): 499-506.

Posey, M.H., T.D. Alphin, C.M. Powell, and E. Townsend. 1999. Oyster reefs as habitat for fish and decapods. Pp 229-237 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA., 358pp.

Powers,S. P. , J. H. Grabowski, C, H. Peterson, and W. J. Lindberg. 2003. Estimating enhancement of fish production by offshore artificial reefs: uncertainty exhibited by divergent scenarios Mar Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 264: 265�277.

Rice, M.A., A. Valliere, and A. Caporelli. 2000. A review of shellfish restoration and management projects in Rhode Island. Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):401-408.

Rothschild, B.J., J.S. Ault, P. Goulletquer, and M. Heral. 1994. Decline of the Chesapeake Bay oyster population: a century of habitat destruction and overfishing. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 111:29-39.

Smith, GF; Roach, EB; Bruce, DG . 2003. The location, composition, and origin of oyster bars in mesohaline Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56 (2): 391-409.

Soniat, TM; Finelli, CM; Ruiz, JT. 2004. Vertical structure and predator refuge mediate oyster reef development and community dynamics J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 310 (2): 163-182.

Surge, DM; Lohmann, KC; Goodfriend, GA . 2003. Reconstructing estuarine conditions: oyster shells as recorders of environmental change, Southwest Florida.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 57, no. 5-6, pp. 737-756.

Swart, JacAA; van der Windt, HennyJ. 2005. Visions of nature and environmental sustainability: Shellfish harvesting in the Dutch Wadden sea. Restoration Ecology 13(1): 183-192.

Thom, Ronald M. 2000. Adaptive management of coastal ecosystem restoration projects. Ecological Engineering 15 (2000) 365�372.

Tolley, SG; Volety, AK; Savarese, M . 2003. Shellfish research and adaptive resource management in Southwest Florida: oysters as sentinels of ecosystem health. World Aquaculture Vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 64-66.

Tweed, SM. 2000. Opportunities in oyster restoration. New Jersey Sea Grant, NJMSC-G-00-001, 2 pp.

Ulanowics, R.E. and J.H. Tuttle. 1992. The trophic consequences of oyster stock rehabilitation in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 15:298-306.

VIMS. 1990. A plan addressing the restoration of the American oyster industry: The results of two workshops. Virginia Sea Grant College Program, Charlottesville, VA (USA), 64 pp.

Walters, K and L. D. Coen. 2006. A comparison of statistical approaches to analyzing community convergence between natural and constructed oyster reefs b Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330 : 81�95.

Wefering, F.M., L.E. Danielson, and N.M. White. 2000. Using the AMOEBA approach to measure progress toward ecosystem sustainability within a shellfish restoration project in North Carolina. Ecol. Model. 130(1-3):157-166.

Weinstein, M. P., and D. A. Kreeger, editors. 2000. Concepts and controversies in tidal marsh ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Wenner, E., H.R. Beatty and L. Coen. 1996. A quantitative system for sampling nekton on intertidal oyster reefs. J. Shellf. Res. 15:769-775.

Wesson, J.A., R. Mann, and M. Luckenbach. 1999. Oyster reef restoration efforts in Virginia. Pp 117-129 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA, 358pp.

White, N.M., D.E. Line, J.D. Potts, W. Kirby-Smith, B. Doll, and W.F. Hunt. 2000. Jump Run Creek shellfish restoration project. Journal of Shellfish 19(1):473-476.

Whitlatch, R.B. and R.W. Osman. 1999. Oyster reefs as metapopulations: Approaches for restoring and managing spatially fragmented habitats. Pp 199-211 in Luckenbach, M.W., Mann, R., and Wesson, J.A., eds., Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A Synopsis and Synthesis of Approaches. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Press, Gloucester Pt., VA., 358pp.

Wilber, D.H., L. Coen, N. Hadley, and K. Walters. In review. Evaluating Habitat Development on Community-Based Oyster Restoration Sites in South Carolina. Coen, L.C, D.H.Wilber and D. Knott.

Yozzo, DJ; Wilber, P; Will, RJ . 2004. Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor. Journal of Environmental Management 73(1): 39-52.

Zimmerman, R., T.J. Minello, T. Baumer, and M. Castiglione. 1989. Oyster reef as habitat for estuarine macrofauna. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-249.

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